Thursday, 17 May 2012

Hearing and Listening

Hearing and Listening isn’t same. When we hear something, that doesn’t mean we are listening. The sounds fall in our ears automatically and we do not really care about them. When we listen, our mind and ears connects together. The sense of seeing is also required with the situation. Our mind goes round and round leaving the gap between the previous words and we forget what is said.
Seeing and Observing
Seeing and observing is just like hearing and listening. We see things around us every day but we do not care.

Water mills in Thrimshing Village

Water mills that were once widely used by farmers for grinding grains are now rarely found. Due to cheap sources of energy and availability of raw materials, they survived through generations. Water being the primary source of fuel to run these mills, they are located near river banks. This project was designed with the objectives to identify the raw materials used in constructing water mills and to analyse the problems in using water mills.
Materials & Method
This study was carried out at Thrimshing village under Trashigang Dzongkhag where traditional water mills are still found. Information were collected through face-to-face interviews with farmers, water mill owners, extension agents and the elderly people (who have better knowledge of water mills) in the study site using both structured and semi-structured questionnaires.
Results & Discussions
There are three types of grinding mills in the study area namely, stone mills (using hand power), water mills and modern mills using diesel as fuel. It was found that most of the farmers (13 farmers out of 30) use water mills in grinding their dried grains.
Water mills are built using raw materials available in the locality. The walls are made either with stones or bamboos. The roofs are made of bamboos which do not last more than five years. And the water mill sheds are located near rivers banks. Doors in water mills are made up of bamboos and are not fixed strongly. Grinding stones can be found only in bank of rivers. Those stones have to be shaped and curved into a sphere shape. Water mills are environment friendly. They are easy to operate and do not produce pollution. They are indeed very useful, cheap and ‘green’ technology.
However, one of the major constraints of using water mill is due to shortage of water in dry season. Sometimes, the water in the streams gets dry even to turn the turbines.

Water mills are fully indigenous technology made by local people using locally available raw materials. There are several possibilities for developing water mills, using local resources which can be more efficient to solve the problems faced by the farmers

Friday, 11 May 2012

Story from Venus

Our fore-parents suffered a lot just to survive themselves. My home was just like your home the earth. That time Venus was the only life supporting planet. Just like the people of the earth we also lived happily. But when the time changed, behavior of the people changed. people looked for their own benefits. They never thought about the future. All the resources available were fully used.

Leaders of the nations tried their best to protect the lives of the people of the planet but nothing worked. Every country worked as they fit. They even didn't bother to look their neighbors. People were so selfish, so rude, not religious. Their hearts were heavy and their mouths were bitter. There was no cooperation between the nations. Their relations broke followed by war. Powerful countries dominated powerless countries.The good thing was, there was great advancement in science and technologies.

Due to the large number of industries, temperature of the planet rises drastically. Air was not safe enough to breath. There was heavy acid-rainfall thereby destroying the crops of the people and even the lives of the animals. Due to the high pollution from the industries, ozone layer failed to protect ultra-violet rays. These rays directly falls to the planet and caused serious damage to the lives of the planet. Snows on the high mountains melts thereby increasing the size of the oceans. Some countries sunk under the oceans.

Block Day Report on Storage Grain Pest


We are very much thankful to our module teacher Mrs. Ugyen Yangchen for taking us to farm households to identify the storage grain pest and their management by the farmers. We were able to know the problems faced by farmers regarding the storage pests and we could identify pests. We also would like to thank the farmers of Tagochen, Shengana for sharing their valuable knowledge and providing time with us. Without them our objectives would have been in vain.
Moreover, we would also like to thank all of our friends for their support in writing this report.

Chapter One

1.1 Introduction

Post harvest is an important part of agriculture. If crops are not stored properly after harvest, pests and diseases would easily attack the grains in the storage thereby causing loss to the farmers. If the grains are not properly managed, they would cause a great loss to the farmers.

 1.2 Objectives

ü  To identify the type of pests and rodents affecting the crops
ü  To study the problems faced by the farmers with the storage grain pest

Chapter Two

It is important to know the pest in the storage as agriculture students. Without the knowledge about the storage grain pest, somebody may not be able to tell farmers how to manage the storage pests and rodents. Therefore, with the objectives to identify the type of pest and to study the problems faced by the farmers in storing the grains, we went to Shengana to interview farmers. It was found that the main pests attacking the storage grains are rice weevil and rats.


In order to fulfil the objectives, the information was collected from six farm households at Tagochen, Shengana under Punakha Dzongkha through structure and semi-structure interview.

Chapter Three - Results and Discussions

3.1 Cereal crops grown:

Rice is grown as the main crop in the summer by the farmers of Tagochen. In winter farmers said that they grow wheat, buckwheat and barley. Unlike rice, they grow maize for home consumption only. They also grow vegetable. According to Aum Yangdon, she said that she grows vegetable for home consumption only. 

3.2 Materials used to stored grains by the farmers of Tagochen

Farmers use following materials to store their grains:
a.      Bamboo basket

b.      Wooden boxes
             The problems in using wooden box are that, during summer seasons mosses and fungi grow thereby the grains in the box get damaged.

c.       Jute and Polythene bags 
                  The problems in storing the grains in jute and polythene bags are that, these bags are easily get damaged by rats. They create a hole and the grains are easily available to them.

d.      Metal drums
        The problems in using the metal drums are that, they get rusted and form rust which get mixed with grains and it is difficult to segregate.

3.3 Pest that attack the stored grains

 Some of the main pests in the storage are weevils, grain moth etc. ‘Most of the damages are done by the larvae of these pests in the storage’, said Ap Tawcho. According to Aum Kinley, rats are the most notorious pest. ‘It destroys the crops in the field and also in the storage’. She also said that, rats create nonsense by moving here and there inside the house and sometimes they make holes in the walls and brings lots of rubbish.

3.4 Management Practices

 Through their experiences, farmers have developed many types of storage system in order to prevent the loss from storage grain pest. Through the advice from the extensions and through their own experiences, they said that they are maintaining the sanitation.
Some of the management practices are stated below:
a.      Sunning/drying
 In case of rice moth, sun-drying is the only way to get rid-off the moths. She said that, while drying in the sun, the moth die and flies away due to the heat of the sun. During rainy days, it’s difficult for the household because, they cannot dry their grains in the sun. So, she said that most of the grains get damaged during rainy days.

b.      Trapping and predators
 In order manage the rodents like rats, she said that she use to keep traps in the runways of the rats and near the holes. She also keep cat to manage rats in the house. “Without cats, rats can destroy the whole storage grain”, said Ap Tawcho. Everybody says killing is sin but for farmers who depend on the crops has no options but to kill the pest that damage the grains. Otherwise, it would be great loss to the farmers.

c.       Sanitation
Sanitation is an important activity in storing grains. “If sanitation is not maintained, insects easily attack the grains”, Aum Chimmi said. She said that she use to clean the residues and unwanted grains in the storage containers.

d.      Rotational use of storage bins
Aum Kinley said that she store her grains in different containers on the rotation basis. “If rice is stored in wooden box this year, we will store buckwheat next year”. When storing the same grains in same container, the disadvantage is pest easily attack the grains, she said.

e.        Chemical treatment
The farmers of Tagochen do not use any chemicals for storage grains to keep away the pests. “Since we are illiterate, we do not have any idea about the chemical”, Ap Tawcho said. Moreover, the pests in the storage do not cause huge damage. Most of the farmers said that, they do not know what chemicals


We found out that the farmers of Tagochen are hard working. Farmers were cooperative and they have strong relation with their neighbours. Meeting farmers and sharing their experiences is the happiest movements. The information we got from them were educative. The knowledge they have about the storing grains is very effective in managing the pests.
Lastly, we would like to thank each and everyone for sharing knowledge about the storage of grains and it pests.

Saturday, 5 May 2012

Why do you think deer has wrinkled forehead?

There was an elephant living near the pool formed by a stream. Every time he goes to the pool she found the water muddy. One day, elephant was so annoyed. He looked around and saw a deer grazing in the forest. He called the deer and said, ‘Do you have any idea about the water source’. ‘No’, replied the deer with much fear. ‘Go and see the creature at the source’, said the elephant angrily.  She pulled her hair and gave to the deer. ‘Tell the creature that I am the boss of this place’. The deer took the hair of an elephant and went to the source. The source was not very far.
Such a huge creature
Upon reaching the source, the deer found a porcupine borrowing the earth. The deer asked what was he doing. ‘I am building a home’, replied the porcupine arrogantly. The soil burrowed was all fallen to the water and the water has become muddy. The deer told him about the elephant and showed him the hair. The porcupine pulled a quill from his back and said, ‘show this quill to the elephant and tell him that this quill is the smallest of all’.

A small creature
The deer went back to the elephant. He found the elephant curiously waiting. ‘Who was there at the source’, said the elephant. The deer showed the quill and the words but didn’t tell her how small it was. By showing the quill and the words of the porcupine, the elephant ran away from the place. The deer then become hopeless and expressed his hopelessness on his forehead because elephant ran away from such small creature. That’s why, deer has wrinkled forehead.

Gross National Happiness Hierarchy

Happiness in the Universe
Happiness in the World

Happiness between the continents

Happiness within the continent

Happiness within the Region

Happiness within the Country/States

Happiness in the Community/ Society

Happiness with the Neighbour

Happiness in the Household

Individual Happiness
The happiness cannot be achieved without cooperation. If somebody acts in different direction, one cannot achieve the aims and objectives of any organizations. There is a saying that, ‘if a river is separated and flows in different direction, even the lamb can cross but a bull cannot cross if they combine together’. To achieve the happiness, every component should be considered. If any one of the component is missing, its like a ladder which has missing step.  Therefore, cooperation is the base of any organizations to achieve its goals.

Wednesday, 2 May 2012

A visit to Khuju Lhakhang

Coinciding with the birth anniversary of Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal on the tenth day of the fourth month in Bhutanese calendar, along with Sonam Phuntsho and Dorji Wangdi, I visited the Khuju Lhakhang. It is about two hours walk from College of Natural Resources.
Khuju Lhakhang
It was sunny morning. We started our journey at 8:30 am. First, we went for shopping to buy butter lamps, incense and some offerings from Pulami.  On our way to Khuju Lhakhang, we visited beautiful Doronthang Lhakhang which is about half an hour walk from our college. It is peacefully located on the sacred slope just above the college. The site has many religious facts around.
We asked the way to Khuju Lhakhang to a nun. She showed the way and warned us about a bull on the way. We came across a junction of paths. We took the right turn. The path was actually used by the nuns and the people for collecting firewood. Even then, we went through the forest in search for a path. While in the forest, we met with a bull as told by a nun. We run as fast as we could to escape from the bull. Luckily we came to a right way to Khuju Lhakhang.

Taking an untravel'd path
It was our first time to visit Khuju Lhakhang. The path was not like any other religious site when going via Dorongthang Lhakhang. The steep slopes would touch your knees and the shrubs and hedges would bar your way. The gorges do not have end and the water was drowned in the mud. Unfortunately, we have forgotten to take knives.

Bajo town seen from Khuju Lhakhang

After ascending the slopes and rocky path, we reached to the Lhakhang at around 10:45 am. The Lhakhang is gorgeously located on the hill seeing all the green sceneries of Wangdue and Punakha valley. There were many visitors, mostly the students from Tencheling and Bajo. They told us that they had walked for four hours.

Khuju Lhakhang on the beautiful hill
The satisfaction you felt will be different. After reaching there, I felt as if I have reached to a land of happiness. So, feel the difference yourself by visiting such religious site.
From the Bhutanese film, “Sherubtse Ga Mi Ga”, an actor says, ‘Thinong namning so ngo ba tey joor ba la na, za ba kiy la za min ma ney la lhakhang ba boo jay bay dey loo ma la na. Za min ba kiy la za ma nay la Lhakhang jay bay dey loo ma la’. Therefore, it is not necessary to need opposite gender while visiting such place. There is no hard and fast rule in such case.